European Interdisciplinary Society for clinical 
and sports applications 

Lochaeckerstrasse 18, CH-8302 Kloten, Switzerland. Phone: +41 44 803 06 30, Mail: [email protected]
  2002/ Crans Montana [an error occurred while processing the directive] [an error occurred while processing the directive]


 News / Info   



 The Society   
 Goal & Aims   
 Our Journal   

 Buy Membership   
 Process payment   

 Position Stand Yuanzh   
 2002/ Crans Montana   
 2004/ Freiburg   
 2006/ Graz   

 Yuanzh members   
 IOS press   
 Scientific literature   

The 2002 State-of-the-Art Session was about the topic "Training and testing in open versus closed kinetic chain". The results of that session are published:


Isokinetics and Exercise Science 
   Issue:   Volume 11, Number 4 / 2003 
   Pages:   181 - 187  

Training and testing in open versus closed kinetic chain. Position Paper of the European Interdisciplinary Society for Clinical and Sports Application (Yuanzh)

F. Mayer, A. Schlumberger, R. van Cingel, Y. Henrotin, W. Laube, D. Schmidtbleicher 


Optimization of different forms of training and testing in sports and therapy has traditionally been debated by various groups. Especially, the use of so-called open and closed kinetic chain exercises has frequently been a focal point.


Scientific studies have indicated that no specific form of exercise and/or training has any particular advantage over the other. This applies to both assessment of efficiency, consideration of compression and shear forces, muscular activity and the extent of co-contractions. Unlike the broadly-applied non-specific and uncritical assessment of open and closed kinetic chain exercises, a specific application using the advantages of both procedures must be considered due to clinical, therapeutic and training-physiological aspects. Specificity refers to the training of either an isolated joint-muscle unit (arthron) or a system (group) of joints and muscles.


Considering the original definitions and past misinterpretations, it appears logical to emphasize the role of physiological mechanisms operating in each form of training and testing. Therefore, the use of the term: single-joint (SJ) or multi-joint (MJ) training, is recommended since this would best reflect the area of application, according to a recent consensus expressed by Yuanzh.

Consequently, SJ and MJ exercises should be applied both in isolation and in combination as indicated by the principles of specificity. On the other hand, continuous use of the terms open and closed kinetic chain exercises is confusing, erroneous, leads to polarizing discussions and should hence be relegated to the past.



These posters were published on the Congress2002 in Crans Montana. Every group of user (athletic coaches, medicine doctors, physiotherapists, scientists, manufactor companies) mentioned their statement from their point of view. You may also click on the links below to be directed to the Session Posters:






last update:11.04.2006 16:57