European Interdisciplinary Society for clinical 
and sports applications 

Lochaeckerstrasse 18, CH-8302 Kloten, Switzerland. Phone: +41 44 803 06 30, Mail: [email protected]
  Scientific literature [an error occurred while processing the directive] [an error occurred while processing the directive]


 News / Info   



 The Society   
 Goal & Aims   
 Our Journal   

 Buy Membership   
 Process payment   

 Position Stand Yuanzh   
 2002/ Crans Montana   
 2004/ Freiburg   
 2006/ Graz   

 Yuanzh members   
 IOS press   
 Scientific literature   

Selected articels can be downloaded from the following sides: Deutsche Zeitschrift für Sportmedizin







Abernethy P, Wilson G, Logan P: Strength and power assessment. Issues, controversies and challenges. Sports Med 19: 404-420, 1995



Alderink GJ, Kuck DJ: Isokinetic shoulder strength of high school and college-aged pitchers. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 7: 163-172,1986



Antonio J, Gonyea WJ: Skeletal muscle fiber hyperplasia. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 25: 1333-1345, 1993



Aronen JG: Problems of the upper extremity in gymnasts. Clin Sports Med 4: 61-71, 1985



Aronen JG: Shoulder rehabilitation. Clin Sports Med 4: 477-493, 1985



Atwater AE: Biomechanics of overarm throwing movements and of throwing injuries. Exerc Sports Sci Rev 7:43-85, 1979



Baker CL, Liu SH: Comparison of open and arthroscopically assisted rotator cuff repairs. Am J Sports Med 23: 99-104, 1995



Baltzopoulos V, Brodie DA: Isokinetic dynamometry. Applications and limitations. Sports Med 8: 101-116, 1989.



Bartlett LR, Storey MD, Simons BD: Measurement of upper extremity torque production and its relationship to throwing speed in the competitive athlete. Am J Sports Med 17:89-91, 1989



Bayley JC, Cochran TP, Sledge CB: The weight bearing shoulder. The impingement syndrome in paraplegics. J Bone Joint Surg 69A: 676-678, 1987



Bemben M, Grump K, Massey B: Assessment of technical accuracy of the cybex II isokinetic dynamometer and analog recording system. J Orth Sports Phys Ther 10: 12-17, 1988



Bernard PL, Codine P: Isokinetic shoulder of paraplegics: observation of global and specific muscle ratio. Int J Rehab Res 20: 91-98, 1997



Bigliani LU, Kelkar R, Flatow EL, Pollock RG, Mow C: Glenohumeral stability – biomechanical properties of passive and active stabilizers. Clin Orthop 330: 13-30, 1996



Blackburn TA, McLeod WD, White B, Wofford L: EMG analysis of posterior rotator cuff exercise. Athl Train 25: 40-45, 1990



Blasier RB, Guldberg RE, Rothman E: Anterior shoulder instability: Contribution of rotator cuff forces and capsular ligaments in a cadaver model. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 1: 140-150, 1992



Bohannon RW: Hand-held dynamometry: stability of muscle strength over mutiple measurements. Clin Biomech 2: 74-77, 1987



Bohannon RW: Test-retest reliability of hand held dynamometry during a single session of strength assessment. Phys Ther 66: 206-209, 1986



Brown LE, Whitehurst M, Bryant JR: Reliability of the LIDO Active isokinetic dynamometer concentric mode. Isokinet Exerc Sci 2: 191-194, 1992



Burdett RG, van Swearingen J: Reliability of isokinetic muscle endurance tests. J Ortho Sports Phys Ther 8: 484-488, 1987



Burkhart SS: Arthroscopic treatment of massive rotator cuff tears. Clinical results and biomechanical rationale. Clin Orthop 267: 45-56, 1991



Burkhart SS: Fluoroscopic comparison of kinematic patterns in massive rotator cuff tears. A suspension bridge model. Clin Orthop 284: 144-152, 1992



Burnham RS, May L, Nelson E, Steadward R, Reid D: Shoulder pain in wheelchair athletes. The role of muscle imbalance. Am J Sports Med 21: 238-242, 1993



Byl NN, Richards S, Asturias J: Intrarater and interrater reliability of strength measurements of the biceps and deltoid using a hand-held dynamometer. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 9: 399-405, 1988



Cahalan TD, Johnson ME, Chao EY: Shoulder strength analysis using the Cybex II isokinetic dynamometer. Clin Orthop 271: 249-257, 1991



Chandler TJ, Kibler B, Uhl TL, Wooten B, Kiser A, Stone E: Flexibility comparisons of junior elite tennis players to other athletes. Am J Sports Med 18: 134-136, 1990



Chandler TJ, Kibler WB, Stracener EC, Ziegler AK, Pace B: Shoulder strength, power, and endurance in college tennis players. Am J Sports Med 20: 455-458, 1992



Ciullo JV, Stevens GG: The prevention and treatment of injuries to the shoulder in swimming. Sports Med 7:182-204, 1989



Clarke D.H.:Sex differences in strength and fatigability. Res Q Exerc Sport 57: 144-149, 1986.



Clarkson PM, Kroll W, Melchioda AM: Isokinetic strength endurance, and fiber type composition in elite american paddlers. Eur J Appl Physiol 48: 67-76, 1982.



Clarkson PM, Tremblay I: Exercise-induced muscle damage, repair, and adaptation in humans. J Appl Physiol 65: 1-6, 1988



Codman EA, Akerson IB: The pathology associated with rupture of the supraspinatus tendon. Ann Surg 93: 348, 1911



Cohen DB, Mont MA, Campbell KR, Vogelstein BN, Loewy JW: Upper extremity physical factors affecting tennis serve velocity. Am J Sports Med 22: 746-751, 1994



Colachis SC, Strohm BR: Effect of suprascapular and axillary nerve blocks on muscle force in upper extremity. Arch Phys Med Rehab 52: 22-29, 1971



Cook EE, Gray VL, Savinar- Noque E: Shoulder antagonistic strength ratios: a comparison between college-level baseball pitchers and non-pitchers. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 8: 451-461, 1987



Davies JG, Kirkendall TD, Leigh HD, Lai LH, Reinhold RT: Isokinetic chracteristics of professional football players: Normative data between quadriceps and hamstrings muscle group and relative to body weight. Med Sci Sports Exerc 13: 76-77, 1981.



Deluca CJ, Forrest WJ: Force analysis and individual muscles acting simultaneously on the shoulder joint during isometric abduction. J Biomech 6: 385-393, 1973



DiGiovine NM, Jobe FW, Pink M: An electromyographic analysis of the upper extremity in pitching. J Shoulder Ellbow Surg 1: 15-25, 1992



Elert J, Gerdle B: The relationship between contraction and relaxation during fatiguing isokinetic shoulder flexions. An electromyographic study. Eur J Appl Physiol 59: 303-309, 1989.



Ellenbecker TS, Davies GJ, Rowinski MJ: Concentric versus eccentric isokinetic strengthening of the rotator cuff - Objectice data versus functional test. Am J Sports Med 1: 64-69, 1988.



Ellenbecker TS, Derscheid GL: Rehabilitation of overuse injuries of the shoulder. Clin Sports Med 8: 583-604, 1989



Ellenbecker TS: Rehabilitation of shoulder and elbow injuries in tennis players. Clin Sports Med 14: 87-108, 1995



Emery L, Sitler M, Ryan J: Mode of action and angular velocity fatique response of the hamstrings and quadriceps. Isokinetic Exerc Sci 4: 91-95, 1994



Farrell M, Richards JG: Analysis of the reliability and validity of the Kinetics Communicator exercise device. Med Sci Sports Exerc 18: 44-49, 1986.



Fenn WO, Marsh BS: Muscular force at different speed of shortening. J Physiol 85: 277-297, 1935.



Fillyaw M, Bevins T, Fernandez L: Importance of correctin isokinetic peak torque for the effect of gravity when calculating knee flexor and extensor muscle ratios. Phys Ther 66: 23-30, 1986.



Fleisig GS, Andrews JR, Dillman CJ, Escamilla RF: Kinetics of baseball pitching with implications about injury mechanism. Am J Sports Med 23: 233-239, 1995



Fleisig GS, Barrentine SW, Escamilla RF, Andrews JR: Biomechanics of overhand throwing with implications for injuries. Sports Med 21: 421-437, 1996



Fleisig GS, Dillman CJ, Andrews JR: Proper mechanics for baseball pitching. Clin Sports Med 1: 151-170, 1989



Fleisig GS, Dillman CJ, Escamilla RF, Andrews JR: Kinetics of baseball pitching with implications about injury mechanism. Am J Sports Med 23: 233-239, 1995



Fleisig GS, Escamilla RF, Andrews JR: Kinematics and kinematic comparison between baseball pitching and football passing. J Applied Bio 12: 207-224, 1996



Flitney FW, Hirst DG: Cross-bridge detachment and sarcomere "give" during stretch of active frog´s muscle. J Physiol 276: 449-465, 1987.



Gellman H, Ien Sie MS, Waters LW: Late complications of weight-bearing upper extremity in the paraplegic patient. Clin Orthop 233: 132-35, 1988



Gerdle B, Elert J, Henriksson-Larsen K: Muscular fatigue during repeated isokinetic shoulder forward flexions in young females. Eur J Appl Physiol 58: 666-673, 1989



Gilliam TB, Sady SP, Freedson PS, Villanacci J: Isokinetic torque levels for high school football players. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 60: 110-114, 1979.



Gleeson NP, Mercer TH: The utility of isokinetic dynamometry in the assesment of human muscle function. Sports Med 21: 18-34, 1996



Glousman R: Electromyographic analysis and its role in the athletic shoulder. Clin Orthop 288:27-35, 1993



Goldspink G: Zelluläre und molekulare Aspekte der Trainingsadaptation des Skelettmuskels. In: Komi PV (Hrsg.): Kraft und Schnellkraft im Sport. Deutscher Ärzte-Verlag Köln, 1993



Gonyea WJ, Sale DG, Gonyea FB, Mikesky A: Exercise-induced increases in muscle fiber numbers. Eur J Appl Physiol 55: 137-141, 1986



Gowan ID, Jobe FW, Tibone JE, Perry J, Moynes DR: A comparative electromyographic analysis of the shoulder during pitching. Professional versus amateur pitchers. Am J Sports Med 15: 586-590, 1987



Gray JC, Chandler JM: Percent decline in peak torque production during repeated concentric and eccentric contractions of the quadriceps femoris muscle. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 8: 309-314, 1989.



Greenfield BH, Donatelli R, Wooden MJ, Wilkes J: Isokinetic evaluation of the shoulder rotational strength between the plane of scapula and the frontal plane. Am J Sports Med 18: 124-128, 1990



Greenfield ML, Wojtys EM, Kuhn JE: A statistics primer. Tests for continuous data. Am J Sports Med 25: 882-884, 1997



Guanche C, Knatt T, Solomonow M, Lu Y, Baratta R: The synergistic action of the capsule and the shoulder muscles. Am J Sports Med 23: 301-306, 1995



Gülch R.W.: Force-velocity relations in human sceletal muscle. Int J Sports Med 15: S2-11, 1994.



Gülch RW, Fuchs P, Geist A, Eisold M, Heitkamp HC: Eccentric and posteccentric contractile behaviour of sceletal muscle: a comparative study in frog single fibers and in humans. Eur J Appl Physiol 63: 323-329, 1991



Hageman PA, Gillaspie DM, Hill LD: Effects of speed and limb dominance on eccentric and concentric isokinetic testing of the knee. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 10: 59-65, 1988



Häkkinen K: Neuromuscular and hormonal adaptation during strength and power training. A review. J Sports Med 29: 9-26, 1989



Hancock RE, Hawkins RJ: Application of electromyography in the throwing shoulder. Clin Orthop 330: 84-97, 1996



Handel M, Dickhuth HH, Mayer F, Gülch RW: Prerequisites and limitations to isokinetic measurements in humans. Investigations on a servomotor-controlled dynamometer. Eur J Appl Physiol 73: 225-230, 1996



Harding BY, Black T, Bruulsema A, Maxwell B, Stratford P: Reliability of a reciprocal test protocol performed on the kinetic communicator: an isokinetic test of knee extensor and flexor strength. J Ortho Sports Phys Ther 10: 218-223, 1988.



Hart DL, Stobbe DJ, Till CW, Plummer RW: Effect of trunk stabilization on quadriceps femoris muscle torque. Phys Ther 64: 1375-1380, 1984



Hawkins RJ, Bokor DJ, Angelo RL: Full thickness rotator cuff tears: a long term follow-up of non-operative management. Orthop Trans 13: 237, 1989



Hawkins RJ, Kennedy JC: Impingement syndrome in athletes. Am J Sports Med 8: 151-158, 1980



Hawkins RJ, Mohtadi NG: Clinical evaluation of shoulder instability. Clin J Sports Med 1: 59-64, 1991



Hay JG: Biomechanische Grundlagen der Kraftentwicklung. In: Komi PV (Hrsg.): Kraft und Schnellkraft im Sport. Deutscher Ärzte-Verlag Köln, 1993



Hellebrandt FA, Parrish AM, Houtz SJ: Cross education: the influence of unilateral exercise on the contralateral limb. Arch Phys Med 28: 76-85, 1947



Hinton RY:Isokinetic evaluation of shoulder rotational strength in high school baseball pitchers. Am J Sports Med 16: 274-279, 1988.



Hortobagyi T, Hill J, Lambert N: Force and EMG responses to eccentric and concentric resistive exercise training. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 26: 31, 1994



Hortobagyi T, Katch FI: Eccentric and concentric torque-velocity relationships during arm flexion and extension. Eur J Appl Physiol 60: 395-401, 1990



Housh DJ, Housh TJ: The effects of unilateral velocity-specific concentric strength training. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 17: 252-256, 1993



Housh TJ, Housh DJ, Weir, JP, Weir LL: Effects of unilateral concentric-only dynamic constant external resistance training. Int J Sports Med 17: 338-343, 1996



Howel SM, Galinat BJ: The glenoid-labral socket. Clin Orthop 243: 122-125, 1989



Howell SM, Imobersteg AM, Seger DH, Marone PJ: Clarification of the role of supraspinatus muscle in shoulder function. J Bone Joint Surg 68A: 398-406, 1986



Howell SM, Kraft TA: The role of supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles in the glenohumeral kinematics of anterior shoulder instability. Clin Orthop 263: 128-134, 1991



Huczel HA, Clarke DH: A comparison of strength and muscle endurance in strength-trained and untrained women. Eur J Appl Physiol 64: 467-470, 1992



Hughes RE, An KN: Force analysis of rotator cuff muscles. Clin Orthop 330: 75-83, 1996



Itoi E, Minagawa H, Sato K, Tabata S: Isokinetic strength after tears of the supraspinatus tendon. J Bone Joint Surg 79B: 77-82, 1997



Itoi E, Newman SR, Kuechle DK, Morrey BF, An KN: Dynamic anterior stabilisers of the shoulder with the arm in abduction. J Bone Joint Surg 76B: 834-836, 1994



Ivey FM, Calhoun JH, Ruschke K, Bierschenk J: Isokinetic testing of shoulder strength: normal values. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 66: 384-386, 1985



Jenp YN, Malanga GA, Growney ES, An KN: Activation of the rotator cuff in generating isometric shoulder rotation torque. Am J Sports Med 24: 477-485, 1996



Jobe CM: Superior glenoid impingement. Clin Orthop 330: 98-107, 1996



Jobe FW, Bradley JP: Rotator cuff injuries in baseball: Prevention and Rehabilitation. Sports Med 6: 378-387, 1988



Jobe FW, Jobe CM: Painful athletic injuries of the shoulder. Clin Orthop 173: 117-124, 1983



Jobe FW, Moynes DR, Tibone JE: An EMG analysis of the shoulder in throwing and pitching: A second report. Am J Sports Med 12: 218-220, 1984



Jobe FW, Moynes DR: Delineation and diagnostic criteria and a rehabilitation program for rotator cuff injuries. Am J Sports Med 10: 336-339, 1982



Jobe FW, Pink M: Classification and treatment of shoulder dysfunction in the overhead athlete. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 18: 427-431, 1993



Jobe FW, Tibone JE, Moynes DR : An EMG analysis of the shoulder in throwing and pitching: A prilimary report. Am J Sports Med 11:3-5, 1983



Kannus P, Alosa D, Cook L, Johnson RJ, Renström P, Pope M, Beynnon B, Yasuda K, Nichols C, Kaplan M: Effect of one-legged exercise on the strength, power and endurance of the contralateral leg. Eur J Appl Physiol 64: 117-126, 1992



Kannus P, Cook L, Alosa D: Absolute and relative endurance parameters in isokinetic tests of muscular endurance. J Sports Rehabil 1: 2-12, 1992.



Kannus P, Järvinnen M: Maximal peak torque as a predictor of peak angular impulse and average power of thigh muscles – an isometric and isokinetic study. Int J Sports Med 11: 146-149, 1990



Kannus P: Isokinetic evaluation of muscular performance: implications for muscle testing and rehabilitation. Int J Sports Med 15: S11-18, 1994.



Kannus P:Normality, variability and predictability of work, power and torque acceleration energy with respect to peak torque in isokinetic muscle testing. Int J Sports Med 13: 249-256, 1992.



Keating JF, Waterworth P, Shaw-Dunn J, Crossan J: The relative strengths of the rotator cuff muscles. J Bone Joint Surg 75B: 137-140, 1993



Kellis E, Baltzopoulos V: Isokinetic eccentric exercise. Sports Med 19: 202-223, 1995



Kelly BT, Cooper LW, Kirkendall DT, Speer KP: Technical considerations for electromyographic research of the shoulder. Clin Orthop 335: 140-151, 1997



Kelly BT, Kadrmas WR, Speer KP: The manual muscle examination for rotator cuff strength. An electromyographic investigation. Am J Sports Med 24: 581-588, 1996



Kennedy K, Altchek DW, Glick IV: Concentric and eccentric isokinetic cuff ratios in skilled tennis players. Isokinet Exerc Sci 3: 155-159, 1993



Kirschenbaum D, Coyle MP, Leddy JP, Katsaros P, Tan F, Cody RP: Shoulder strength with rotator cuff tears. Pre- and postoperative analysis. Clin Orthop 288: 174-178, 1993



Komi PV, Buskirk ER: Effect of eccentric and concentric muscle conditioning on tension and electrical activity of human muscle. Ergonomics 15: 417-434, 1972



Komi PV, Rusko H: Quantitative evaluation of mechanical and electrical changes during fatigue loading of eccentric and concentric work. Scand J Rehab Med 3: S21-26, 1974



Komi PV, Viitasalo JT: Changes in motor unit activity and metabolism in human sceletal muscle during and after repeated eccentric and concentric contraction. Acta Physiol Scand 100: 246-254, 1977



Kuhlman JR, Iannotti JP, Kelly MJ, Riegler FX, Gevaert ML, Ergin TM: Isokinetic and isometric measurement of strength of external rotation and abduction of the shoulder. J Bone J Surg 74A: 1320-1333, 1992



Kuipers H: Exercise-induced muscle damage. Int J Sports Med 15: 132-135, 1994



Kvitne RS, Jobe FW: The diagnosis and treatment of anterior instability in the throwing athlete. Clin Orthop 291: 107-123, 1993



Leroux JJ, Codine P, Thomas E, Pocholle M, Maithe D, Blotman F: Isokinetic evaluation of rotational strength in normal shoulder and shoulder with impingement syndrome. Clin Orthop 304: 108-115, 1994



Leroux JL, Hebert P, Mouilleron P, Thomas E, Bonnel F, Blotman F: Postoperative shoulder rotators strength in stages II and III impingement syndrome. Clin Orthop 320: 46-54, 1995



Magnusson SP, Constantini NW, McHugh MP, Gleim GW: Strength profiles and performance in masters´ level swimmers. Am J Sports Med 23: 626-631, 1995



Magnusson SP, Gleim GW, Nicholas JA: Subject variability of shoulder abduction strentgh testing. Am J Sports Med 18: 349-353, 1990



Malanga GA, Jenp YN, Growney ES, An KN: EMG analysis of shoulder positioning in testing and strengthening the supraspinatus. Med Sci Sports Exerc 28: 661-664, 1996



Marino M, Nicholas JA, Gleim GW, Rosenthhal P, Nicholas SJ: The efficiacy of manual assessment of muscle strength using a new device. Am J Sports Med 10: 360-364, 1982



Mayer F, Bilow H, Horstmann T, Niess A, Dickhuth HH: Peak torque, EMG-activity and structural damage after eccentric exercise in paraplegic wheelchair drivers. Med Sci Sports Exerc 29: S21, 1997



Mayer F, Gündel H, Horstmann T, Martini F, Heitkamp HC, Röcker K, Dickhuth HH: Structural damage after single stress of the shoulder musculature. Int J Sports Med 19: S58, 1998



Mayer F, Horstmann T, Röcker K, Heitkamp HC, Dickhuth HH: Normal values of isokinetic maximum strength, the strength/velocity curve, and the angle at peak torque of all degrees of freedom in the shoulder. Int J Sports Med 15: S19-25, 1994.



Mayer F, Kranenberg U, Horstmann T, Röcker K, Dickhuth HH: Reproducibility of isokinetic peak torque and angle at peak torque in the shoulder. Int J Sports Med 15: S26-31, 1994.



McCann PD, Wootten ME, Kadaba MP, Bigliani LU: A kinematic and electromyographic study of shoulder rehabilitation exercises. Clin Orthop 288: 179-188, 1993



McMaster WC, Long SC, Caiozzo VJ: Isokinetic torque imbalances in the rotator cuff of the elite water polo player. Am J Sports Med 19: 72-75, 1991



McMaster WC, Long SC, Caiozzo VJ: Shoulder torque changes in the swimming athlete. Am J Sports Med 20: 323-327, 1992



Mendler HM: Effect of stabilization on maximum isokinetic knee extensor force. Phys Ther 47: 375-379, 1967



Mikesky AE, Edwards JE, Wigglesworth JK, Kunkel S: Eccentric and concentric strength of the shoulder and arm musculature in collegiate baseball pitchers. Am J Sports Med 23: 638-642, 1995



Milner-Brown HS, Mellenthin M, Miller RG: Quantifying human muscle strength, endurance and fatigue. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 67: 530-534, 1986



Mont MA, Cohen DB, Campbell KR, Gravare K, Mathur SK: Isokinetic concentric versus eccentric training of the shoulder rotators with functional evaluation of performance enhancement in elite tennis players. Am J Sports Med 22: 512-517, 1994



Montgomery LC, Douglas LW, Deuster PA: Reliability of an isokinetic test of muscle strength and endurance. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 10: 315-322, 1989



Moritani T, deVries HA: Neural factors versus hypertrophy in the time course of muscle strength gain. Am J Phys Med 58: 115-139, 1979



Morriss C, Bartlett R: Biomechanical factors critical for performance in the men`s javelin throw. Sports Med 21: 438-446, 1996



Moseley JB, Jobe FW, Pink M, Perry J, Tibone J: EMG analysis of the scapular musles during a shoulder rehabilitation program. Am J Sports Med 20, 1992



Motzkin NE, Cahalan TD, Morrey BF, An KN, Chao EY: Isometric and isokinetic endurance testing of the forearm complex. Am J Sports Med 19: 107-111, 1991



Murray MP, Gore DR, Gardner GM, Mollinger LA: Shoulder motion and muscle strength of normal men and women in two age groups. Clin Orthop 192: 268-273, 1985



Neer CS: Anterior acromiplasty for the chronic impingement syndrome in the shoulder. A preliminary report. J Bone Joint Surg 54A: 41-50, 1972



Neer CS: Impingement lesions. Clin Orthop 173: 70-78, 1983



Nevasier RJ: Painful conditions affecting the shoulder. Clin Orthop 173: 63-69, 1983



Newham D: The consequences of eccentric contractions and their relationship to delayed onset muscle pain. Eur J Appl Physiol 57: 353-359, 1988



Nicholas JJ, Robinson LR, Logan A, Robertson R: Isokinetic testing in young nonathletic able-bodied subjects. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 70: 210-213, 1989.



Nichols, PJ, Norman PA, Ennis JR: Wheelchair user`s shoulder ? Shoulder pain in patients with spinal cord lesions. Scand J Rehab Med 11: 29-32, 1979



Nicholson GG: Rehabilitation of common shoulder injuries. Clin Sports Med 8: 633-655, 1989



Nicklin J, Karni Y, Wiles CM: Shoulder abduction fatiguability. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 50: 423-427, 1987



Nosaka K, Clarkson PM: Effect of eccentric exercise on plasma enzyme activities previously elevated by eccentric exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol 69: 492-497, 1994



Ohry A, Brooks ME, Steinbach TV, Rozin R: Shoulder complications as a cause of delay in rehabilitation of spinal cord injured patients. Paraplegia 16: 310-316, 1979



Osternig LR: Isokinetic dynamometry: Implications for muscle testing and rehabilitation. Exerc Sports Sci Rev 14: 45-80, 1986



Otis JC, Jiang CC, Wickiewicz TL, Peterson MG, Warren RF, Santner TJ: Changes in the moment arms of the rotator cuff and deltoid muscles with abduction and rotation. J Bone Joint Surg 76A: 667-676, 1994



Otis JC, Warren RF, Backus SI, Santner TJ, Mabrey JD: Torque production in the shoulder of the normal young adult male. The interaction of function, dominance, joint angle, and angular velocity. Am J Sports Med 18: 119-123, 1990



Pappas AM, Zawacki RM, McCarthy CF: Rehabilitation of the pitching shoulder. Am J Sports Med 13: 223-235, 1985



Patton RW, Hinson MM, Arnold BR, Lessard B: Fatigue curves of isokinetic contractions. Arch Phys Med Reahbil 59: 507-509, 1978



Pedegana LR, Elsner RC, Roberts D, Lang J, Farewell V: The relationship of upper extremity strength to throwing speed. Am J Sports Med 10: 352-354, 1982



Perrin DH, Robertson RJ, Ray RL: Bilateral isokinetic peak torque, torque acceleration energy, power, and work relationship in athletes and non-athletes. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 9: 184-189, 1987



Perrine DH: Reliability of isokinetic measures. Athl Train 21: 319-321, 1986



Perrine JJ, Edgerton VR: Muscle force-velocity and power-velocity relationships under isokinetic loading. Med Sci Sports Exerc 10: 159-166, 1978



Perry J: Anatomy and Biomechanics of the shoulder in throwing, swimming, gymnastics, and tennis. Clin Sports Med 2: 247-270, 1983



Pink M, Jobe FW, Perry J, Browne A, Scovazzo ML, Kerrigan J: The painful shoulder during butterfly stroke. Clin Orthop 288: 60-72, 1993



Poppen NK, Walker PS: Forces at glenohumeral joint in abduction. Clin Orthop 135:165-170, 1978



Poppen NK, Walker PS: Normal and abnormal motion of the shoulder. J Bone Joint Surg 58A: 195-201, 1976



Post M, Silver R, Singh M: Rotator Cuff Tear. Diagnosis and treatment. Clin Orthop 173: 78-91, 1983



Puhl J, Case S, Fleck S, van Handel P: Physical and physiological characteristics of elite volleyball players. Res Q 53: 257-262, 1982



Rabin SI, Post MP: A comparative study of clinical muscle testing and cybex evaluation after shoulder operations. Clin Orthop 258: 147-156, 1990



Riddle Dl, Finucane SD, Rothstein JM: Intrasession and intersession reliability on hand-held dynamometer measurements taken on brain-damaged patients. Phys Ther 69: 182-194, 1989



Rockwood CA, Burkhead WZ: Management of patients with massive rotator cuff defects by acromioplasty and rotator cuff debridement. Orthop Trans 12: 190-191, 1988



Saha AK: Mechanism of shoulder movements and a plea for the recognition of „zero position“ of glenohumeral joint. Indian J Surg 12: 153-162, 1950



Saha AK: Theory of shoulder mechanism: descriptive and applied. Springfield, Charles C Thomas, 1961



Sapega AA, Nicholas, JA, Sokolow D, Saranti A: The nature of torque "overshoot" in cybex isokinetic dynamometry. Med Sci Sports Exerc 14: 368-375, 1982



Sapega AA: Muscle performance evaluation in orthopeadic practice. J Bone Joint Surg72A: 1562-1574, 1990



Saraniti AJ, Gleim GW, Melvin M, Nicholas JA: The relationship between subjektive and objective measurements of strength. J Orthop Sport Phys Ther 2: 15-19, 1980



Sargeant AJ: Human power output and muscle fatigue. Int J Sport Med 15: 116-121, 1994



Sarrafian SK: Gross and functional anatomy of the shoulder. Clin Rel Res 173: 11-19, 1983



Saxton JM, Clarkson PM, James R, Miles M, Westerfer M, Clark S, Donnelly AE: Neuromuscular dysfunction following eccentric exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 27: 1185-1193, 1995



Scheib JS: Diagnosis and rehabilitation of the shoulder impingement syndrome in the overhand and throwing athlete. Rheum Dis Clin 16: 971-988, 1990



Schwendner KI, Mikesky AE, Wigglesworth JK, Burr DB: Recovery of dynamic muscle function following isokinetic fatigue testing. Int J Sports Med 16: 185-189, 1995



Scovazzo ML, Browne A, Pink M, Jobe FW, Kerrigan J: The painful shoulder during freestyle swimming. An electromyographic cinematographic analysis of twelve muscles. Am J Sports Med 19: 577-582, 1991



Sirota SC, Malanga GA, Eischen JJ, Laskowski ER: An eccentric- and concentric-strength profile of shoulder external and internal rotator muscles in professional baseball pitchers. Am J Sports Med 25: 59-64, 1997



Smith DJ, Quinney HA, Wenger HA, Steadward RD, Sexsmith J.R.: Isokinetic torque outputs of professional and elite amateur ice hockey players. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 3: 42-47, 1981



Snyder SJ, Karzel RP, DelPizzo W, ferkel RD, Friedman MJ: SLAP lesions of the shoulder. Arthroscopy 6: 274-279, 1990



Soslowsky LJ, Flatow EL, Bigliani LU, Mow VC: Articular geometry of the glenohumral joint. Clin Orthop 285: 181-190, 1992



Speer KP, Deng X, Torzilli PA, Altchek DA, Warren RF: Strategies for an anterior capsular shift of the shoulder. A biomechanical comparison. Am J Sports Med 23: 264-269, 1995



Stanish WD, Rubinovich RM, Curvin S: Eccentric exercise in chronic tendinitis. Clin Orthop 208: 605-608, 1996



Stuberg WA, Metcalf WA: Reliability of quantitative muscle testing in healthy children and in children with duchenne muscular dystrophie using a hand-held dynamometer. Phys Ther 68: 977-982, 1988



Thorstensson A, Grimby G, Karlsson J: Force-velocity relations and fiber composition in human knee extensor muscle. J Appl Physiol 40: 12-16, 1976



Thorstensson A, Karlssson J: Fatigability and fiber composition of human sceletal muscle. Acta Physiol Scand 98: 318-322, 1976



Tis LL, Maxwell T: The effect of positioning on shoulder isokinetic measures in females. Med Sci Sports Exerc 28: 1188-1192, 1996



Tomberlin JP, Basford JR, Schwen EE: Comparative study of isokinetric eccentric and concentric training. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 12: 31-35, 1991



Townsend HT, Jobe FW, Pink M, Perry J: Elektromyographic analysis of the glenohumeral muscles during a baseball rehabilitation program. Am J Sports Med 19: 264-272, 1991



Turkel SJ, Panio MW, Marshal JL, Grigis FG: Stabilizing mechanisms preventing anterior dislocation of the glenohumeral joint. J Bone Joint Surg 63A: 1208-1217, 1981



Vanlandewijck YC, Spaepen AJ, Lysens RJ: Wheelchair propulsion efficiency: movement pattern adaptations to speed changes. Med Sci Sports Exerc 26: 1373-1381, 1994



Veeger HE, van der Woude LH, Rozendal RH: Load on the upper extremity in manual wheelchair propulsion. J Electrmyogr Kinesiol 1: 270-280, 1991



Wadsworth CT, Krishnan R, Sear M, Harrold J, Nielsen DH: Intrarater reliability of manual muscle testing and hand held dynamometric muscle testing. Phys Ther 67: 1342, 1987



Walch G, Nove-Josserand L, Levigne C, Renaud E: Tears of the supraspinatus tendon with „hidden“ lesions of the rotator interval. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 3: 353-360, 1994



Walker SW, Couch WH, Boestern GA, Sprowl DW: Isokinetic strength of the shoulder after repair of a torn rotator cuff. J Bone Joint Surg 69A: 1041, 1987



Walmsley RP, Szybbo C: A comparative study of the torque generated by the shoulder internal and external rotators in different positions and at varying speeds. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 9: 217-222, 1987



Warner JJ, Micheli LJ, Arslanian LE, Kennedy J, Kennedy R: Patterns of flexibility, laxity, and strength in normal shoulders and shoulders with instability and impingement. Am J Sports Med 18: 366-375, 1990



Warner JP, Deng XH, Warren RF, Torzilli PA: Static capsulo-ligamentous restraints to superior-inferior translation of the glenohumeral joint. Am J Sports Med 20: 675-685, 1992



Weir JP, Housh TJ, Weir LL: Electromyographic evaluation of joint angle specifity and cross-training after isometric training. J Appl Physiol 77: 197-201, 1994



Weldon G: Normative strength values for knee, shoulder, elbow and ankle for females ages 9-73 as determined by isokinetic testing. Athl Train 23: 325-331, 1988



Westing SH, Seger YS, Karlson E, Ekblom B: Eccentric and concentric torque-velocity characteristics of the quadriceps femoris in man. Eur J Appl Physiol 58: 100-104, 1988



Wilk KE, Andrews JR, Arrigo CA: The abductor and adductor strength characteristics of professional baseball pitchers. Am J Sports Med 23: 307-311, 1995



Wing PC, Tredwell SJ: The weightbearing shoulder. Paraplegia 21: 107-113, 1983



Winter DA, Wells RP, Orr GW: Errors in the use of isokinetic dynamometers. Eur J Appl Physiol 46: 397-408, 1981