European Interdisciplinary Society for clinical 
and sports applications 


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Selected articels can be downloaded from the following sides: Deutsche Zeitschrift für Sportmedizin

 

 

Articels

 

1.

 

Abernethy P, Wilson G, Logan P: Strength and power assessment. Issues, controversies and challenges. Sports Med 19: 404-420, 1995

2.

 

Alderink GJ, Kuck DJ: Isokinetic shoulder strength of high school and college-aged pitchers. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 7: 163-172,1986

3.

 

Antonio J, Gonyea WJ: Skeletal muscle fiber hyperplasia. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 25: 1333-1345, 1993

4.

 

Aronen JG: Problems of the upper extremity in gymnasts. Clin Sports Med 4: 61-71, 1985

5.

 

Aronen JG: Shoulder rehabilitation. Clin Sports Med 4: 477-493, 1985

6.

 

Atwater AE: Biomechanics of overarm throwing movements and of throwing injuries. Exerc Sports Sci Rev 7:43-85, 1979

7.

 

Baker CL, Liu SH: Comparison of open and arthroscopically assisted rotator cuff repairs. Am J Sports Med 23: 99-104, 1995

8.

 

Baltzopoulos V, Brodie DA: Isokinetic dynamometry. Applications and limitations. Sports Med 8: 101-116, 1989.

9.

 

Bartlett LR, Storey MD, Simons BD: Measurement of upper extremity torque production and its relationship to throwing speed in the competitive athlete. Am J Sports Med 17:89-91, 1989

10.

 

Bayley JC, Cochran TP, Sledge CB: The weight bearing shoulder. The impingement syndrome in paraplegics. J Bone Joint Surg 69A: 676-678, 1987

11.

 

Bemben M, Grump K, Massey B: Assessment of technical accuracy of the cybex II isokinetic dynamometer and analog recording system. J Orth Sports Phys Ther 10: 12-17, 1988

12.

 

Bernard PL, Codine P: Isokinetic shoulder of paraplegics: observation of global and specific muscle ratio. Int J Rehab Res 20: 91-98, 1997

13.

 

Bigliani LU, Kelkar R, Flatow EL, Pollock RG, Mow C: Glenohumeral stability – biomechanical properties of passive and active stabilizers. Clin Orthop 330: 13-30, 1996

14.

 

Blackburn TA, McLeod WD, White B, Wofford L: EMG analysis of posterior rotator cuff exercise. Athl Train 25: 40-45, 1990

15.

 

Blasier RB, Guldberg RE, Rothman E: Anterior shoulder instability: Contribution of rotator cuff forces and capsular ligaments in a cadaver model. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 1: 140-150, 1992

16.

 

Bohannon RW: Hand-held dynamometry: stability of muscle strength over mutiple measurements. Clin Biomech 2: 74-77, 1987

17.

 

Bohannon RW: Test-retest reliability of hand held dynamometry during a single session of strength assessment. Phys Ther 66: 206-209, 1986

18.

 

Brown LE, Whitehurst M, Bryant JR: Reliability of the LIDO Active isokinetic dynamometer concentric mode. Isokinet Exerc Sci 2: 191-194, 1992

19.

 

Burdett RG, van Swearingen J: Reliability of isokinetic muscle endurance tests. J Ortho Sports Phys Ther 8: 484-488, 1987

20.

 

Burkhart SS: Arthroscopic treatment of massive rotator cuff tears. Clinical results and biomechanical rationale. Clin Orthop 267: 45-56, 1991

21.

 

Burkhart SS: Fluoroscopic comparison of kinematic patterns in massive rotator cuff tears. A suspension bridge model. Clin Orthop 284: 144-152, 1992

22.

 

Burnham RS, May L, Nelson E, Steadward R, Reid D: Shoulder pain in wheelchair athletes. The role of muscle imbalance. Am J Sports Med 21: 238-242, 1993

23.

 

Byl NN, Richards S, Asturias J: Intrarater and interrater reliability of strength measurements of the biceps and deltoid using a hand-held dynamometer. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 9: 399-405, 1988

24.

 

Cahalan TD, Johnson ME, Chao EY: Shoulder strength analysis using the Cybex II isokinetic dynamometer. Clin Orthop 271: 249-257, 1991

25.

 

Chandler TJ, Kibler B, Uhl TL, Wooten B, Kiser A, Stone E: Flexibility comparisons of junior elite tennis players to other athletes. Am J Sports Med 18: 134-136, 1990

26.

 

Chandler TJ, Kibler WB, Stracener EC, Ziegler AK, Pace B: Shoulder strength, power, and endurance in college tennis players. Am J Sports Med 20: 455-458, 1992

27.

 

Ciullo JV, Stevens GG: The prevention and treatment of injuries to the shoulder in swimming. Sports Med 7:182-204, 1989

28.

 

Clarke D.H.:Sex differences in strength and fatigability. Res Q Exerc Sport 57: 144-149, 1986.

29.

 

Clarkson PM, Kroll W, Melchioda AM: Isokinetic strength endurance, and fiber type composition in elite american paddlers. Eur J Appl Physiol 48: 67-76, 1982.

30.

 

Clarkson PM, Tremblay I: Exercise-induced muscle damage, repair, and adaptation in humans. J Appl Physiol 65: 1-6, 1988

31.

 

Codman EA, Akerson IB: The pathology associated with rupture of the supraspinatus tendon. Ann Surg 93: 348, 1911

32.

 

Cohen DB, Mont MA, Campbell KR, Vogelstein BN, Loewy JW: Upper extremity physical factors affecting tennis serve velocity. Am J Sports Med 22: 746-751, 1994

33.

 

Colachis SC, Strohm BR: Effect of suprascapular and axillary nerve blocks on muscle force in upper extremity. Arch Phys Med Rehab 52: 22-29, 1971

34.

 

Cook EE, Gray VL, Savinar- Noque E: Shoulder antagonistic strength ratios: a comparison between college-level baseball pitchers and non-pitchers. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 8: 451-461, 1987

35.

 

Davies JG, Kirkendall TD, Leigh HD, Lai LH, Reinhold RT: Isokinetic chracteristics of professional football players: Normative data between quadriceps and hamstrings muscle group and relative to body weight. Med Sci Sports Exerc 13: 76-77, 1981.

36.

 

Deluca CJ, Forrest WJ: Force analysis and individual muscles acting simultaneously on the shoulder joint during isometric abduction. J Biomech 6: 385-393, 1973

37.

 

DiGiovine NM, Jobe FW, Pink M: An electromyographic analysis of the upper extremity in pitching. J Shoulder Ellbow Surg 1: 15-25, 1992

38.

 

Elert J, Gerdle B: The relationship between contraction and relaxation during fatiguing isokinetic shoulder flexions. An electromyographic study. Eur J Appl Physiol 59: 303-309, 1989.

39.

 

Ellenbecker TS, Davies GJ, Rowinski MJ: Concentric versus eccentric isokinetic strengthening of the rotator cuff - Objectice data versus functional test. Am J Sports Med 1: 64-69, 1988.

40.

 

Ellenbecker TS, Derscheid GL: Rehabilitation of overuse injuries of the shoulder. Clin Sports Med 8: 583-604, 1989

41.

 

Ellenbecker TS: Rehabilitation of shoulder and elbow injuries in tennis players. Clin Sports Med 14: 87-108, 1995

42.

 

Emery L, Sitler M, Ryan J: Mode of action and angular velocity fatique response of the hamstrings and quadriceps. Isokinetic Exerc Sci 4: 91-95, 1994

43.

 

Farrell M, Richards JG: Analysis of the reliability and validity of the Kinetics Communicator exercise device. Med Sci Sports Exerc 18: 44-49, 1986.

44.

 

Fenn WO, Marsh BS: Muscular force at different speed of shortening. J Physiol 85: 277-297, 1935.

45.

 

Fillyaw M, Bevins T, Fernandez L: Importance of correctin isokinetic peak torque for the effect of gravity when calculating knee flexor and extensor muscle ratios. Phys Ther 66: 23-30, 1986.

46.

 

Fleisig GS, Andrews JR, Dillman CJ, Escamilla RF: Kinetics of baseball pitching with implications about injury mechanism. Am J Sports Med 23: 233-239, 1995

47.

 

Fleisig GS, Barrentine SW, Escamilla RF, Andrews JR: Biomechanics of overhand throwing with implications for injuries. Sports Med 21: 421-437, 1996

48.

 

Fleisig GS, Dillman CJ, Andrews JR: Proper mechanics for baseball pitching. Clin Sports Med 1: 151-170, 1989

49.

 

Fleisig GS, Dillman CJ, Escamilla RF, Andrews JR: Kinetics of baseball pitching with implications about injury mechanism. Am J Sports Med 23: 233-239, 1995

50.

 

Fleisig GS, Escamilla RF, Andrews JR: Kinematics and kinematic comparison between baseball pitching and football passing. J Applied Bio 12: 207-224, 1996

51.

 

Flitney FW, Hirst DG: Cross-bridge detachment and sarcomere "give" during stretch of active frog´s muscle. J Physiol 276: 449-465, 1987.

52.

 

Gellman H, Ien Sie MS, Waters LW: Late complications of weight-bearing upper extremity in the paraplegic patient. Clin Orthop 233: 132-35, 1988

53.

 

Gerdle B, Elert J, Henriksson-Larsen K: Muscular fatigue during repeated isokinetic shoulder forward flexions in young females. Eur J Appl Physiol 58: 666-673, 1989

54.

 

Gilliam TB, Sady SP, Freedson PS, Villanacci J: Isokinetic torque levels for high school football players. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 60: 110-114, 1979.

55.

 

Gleeson NP, Mercer TH: The utility of isokinetic dynamometry in the assesment of human muscle function. Sports Med 21: 18-34, 1996

56.

 

Glousman R: Electromyographic analysis and its role in the athletic shoulder. Clin Orthop 288:27-35, 1993

57.

 

Goldspink G: Zelluläre und molekulare Aspekte der Trainingsadaptation des Skelettmuskels. In: Komi PV (Hrsg.): Kraft und Schnellkraft im Sport. Deutscher Ärzte-Verlag Köln, 1993

58.

 

Gonyea WJ, Sale DG, Gonyea FB, Mikesky A: Exercise-induced increases in muscle fiber numbers. Eur J Appl Physiol 55: 137-141, 1986

59.

 

Gowan ID, Jobe FW, Tibone JE, Perry J, Moynes DR: A comparative electromyographic analysis of the shoulder during pitching. Professional versus amateur pitchers. Am J Sports Med 15: 586-590, 1987

60.

 

Gray JC, Chandler JM: Percent decline in peak torque production during repeated concentric and eccentric contractions of the quadriceps femoris muscle. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 8: 309-314, 1989.

61.

 

Greenfield BH, Donatelli R, Wooden MJ, Wilkes J: Isokinetic evaluation of the shoulder rotational strength between the plane of scapula and the frontal plane. Am J Sports Med 18: 124-128, 1990

62.

 

Greenfield ML, Wojtys EM, Kuhn JE: A statistics primer. Tests for continuous data. Am J Sports Med 25: 882-884, 1997

63.

 

Guanche C, Knatt T, Solomonow M, Lu Y, Baratta R: The synergistic action of the capsule and the shoulder muscles. Am J Sports Med 23: 301-306, 1995

64.

 

Gülch R.W.: Force-velocity relations in human sceletal muscle. Int J Sports Med 15: S2-11, 1994.

65.

 

Gülch RW, Fuchs P, Geist A, Eisold M, Heitkamp HC: Eccentric and posteccentric contractile behaviour of sceletal muscle: a comparative study in frog single fibers and in humans. Eur J Appl Physiol 63: 323-329, 1991

66.

 

Hageman PA, Gillaspie DM, Hill LD: Effects of speed and limb dominance on eccentric and concentric isokinetic testing of the knee. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 10: 59-65, 1988

67.

 

Häkkinen K: Neuromuscular and hormonal adaptation during strength and power training. A review. J Sports Med 29: 9-26, 1989

68.

 

Hancock RE, Hawkins RJ: Application of electromyography in the throwing shoulder. Clin Orthop 330: 84-97, 1996

69.

 

Handel M, Dickhuth HH, Mayer F, Gülch RW: Prerequisites and limitations to isokinetic measurements in humans. Investigations on a servomotor-controlled dynamometer. Eur J Appl Physiol 73: 225-230, 1996

70.

 

Harding BY, Black T, Bruulsema A, Maxwell B, Stratford P: Reliability of a reciprocal test protocol performed on the kinetic communicator: an isokinetic test of knee extensor and flexor strength. J Ortho Sports Phys Ther 10: 218-223, 1988.

71.

 

Hart DL, Stobbe DJ, Till CW, Plummer RW: Effect of trunk stabilization on quadriceps femoris muscle torque. Phys Ther 64: 1375-1380, 1984

72.

 

Hawkins RJ, Bokor DJ, Angelo RL: Full thickness rotator cuff tears: a long term follow-up of non-operative management. Orthop Trans 13: 237, 1989

73.

 

Hawkins RJ, Kennedy JC: Impingement syndrome in athletes. Am J Sports Med 8: 151-158, 1980

74.

 

Hawkins RJ, Mohtadi NG: Clinical evaluation of shoulder instability. Clin J Sports Med 1: 59-64, 1991

75.

 

Hay JG: Biomechanische Grundlagen der Kraftentwicklung. In: Komi PV (Hrsg.): Kraft und Schnellkraft im Sport. Deutscher Ärzte-Verlag Köln, 1993

76.

 

Hellebrandt FA, Parrish AM, Houtz SJ: Cross education: the influence of unilateral exercise on the contralateral limb. Arch Phys Med 28: 76-85, 1947

77.

 

Hinton RY:Isokinetic evaluation of shoulder rotational strength in high school baseball pitchers. Am J Sports Med 16: 274-279, 1988.

78.

 

Hortobagyi T, Hill J, Lambert N: Force and EMG responses to eccentric and concentric resistive exercise training. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 26: 31, 1994

79.

 

Hortobagyi T, Katch FI: Eccentric and concentric torque-velocity relationships during arm flexion and extension. Eur J Appl Physiol 60: 395-401, 1990

80.

 

Housh DJ, Housh TJ: The effects of unilateral velocity-specific concentric strength training. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 17: 252-256, 1993

81.

 

Housh TJ, Housh DJ, Weir, JP, Weir LL: Effects of unilateral concentric-only dynamic constant external resistance training. Int J Sports Med 17: 338-343, 1996

82.

 

Howel SM, Galinat BJ: The glenoid-labral socket. Clin Orthop 243: 122-125, 1989

83.

 

Howell SM, Imobersteg AM, Seger DH, Marone PJ: Clarification of the role of supraspinatus muscle in shoulder function. J Bone Joint Surg 68A: 398-406, 1986

84.

 

Howell SM, Kraft TA: The role of supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles in the glenohumeral kinematics of anterior shoulder instability. Clin Orthop 263: 128-134, 1991

85.

 

Huczel HA, Clarke DH: A comparison of strength and muscle endurance in strength-trained and untrained women. Eur J Appl Physiol 64: 467-470, 1992

86.

 

Hughes RE, An KN: Force analysis of rotator cuff muscles. Clin Orthop 330: 75-83, 1996

87.

 

Itoi E, Minagawa H, Sato K, Tabata S: Isokinetic strength after tears of the supraspinatus tendon. J Bone Joint Surg 79B: 77-82, 1997

88.

 

Itoi E, Newman SR, Kuechle DK, Morrey BF, An KN: Dynamic anterior stabilisers of the shoulder with the arm in abduction. J Bone Joint Surg 76B: 834-836, 1994

89.

 

Ivey FM, Calhoun JH, Ruschke K, Bierschenk J: Isokinetic testing of shoulder strength: normal values. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 66: 384-386, 1985

90.

 

Jenp YN, Malanga GA, Growney ES, An KN: Activation of the rotator cuff in generating isometric shoulder rotation torque. Am J Sports Med 24: 477-485, 1996

91.

 

Jobe CM: Superior glenoid impingement. Clin Orthop 330: 98-107, 1996

92.

 

Jobe FW, Bradley JP: Rotator cuff injuries in baseball: Prevention and Rehabilitation. Sports Med 6: 378-387, 1988

93.

 

Jobe FW, Jobe CM: Painful athletic injuries of the shoulder. Clin Orthop 173: 117-124, 1983

94.

 

Jobe FW, Moynes DR, Tibone JE: An EMG analysis of the shoulder in throwing and pitching: A second report. Am J Sports Med 12: 218-220, 1984

95.

 

Jobe FW, Moynes DR: Delineation and diagnostic criteria and a rehabilitation program for rotator cuff injuries. Am J Sports Med 10: 336-339, 1982

96.

 

Jobe FW, Pink M: Classification and treatment of shoulder dysfunction in the overhead athlete. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 18: 427-431, 1993

97.

 

Jobe FW, Tibone JE, Moynes DR : An EMG analysis of the shoulder in throwing and pitching: A prilimary report. Am J Sports Med 11:3-5, 1983

98.

 

Kannus P, Alosa D, Cook L, Johnson RJ, Renström P, Pope M, Beynnon B, Yasuda K, Nichols C, Kaplan M: Effect of one-legged exercise on the strength, power and endurance of the contralateral leg. Eur J Appl Physiol 64: 117-126, 1992

99.

 

Kannus P, Cook L, Alosa D: Absolute and relative endurance parameters in isokinetic tests of muscular endurance. J Sports Rehabil 1: 2-12, 1992.

100.

 

Kannus P, Järvinnen M: Maximal peak torque as a predictor of peak angular impulse and average power of thigh muscles – an isometric and isokinetic study. Int J Sports Med 11: 146-149, 1990

101.

 

Kannus P: Isokinetic evaluation of muscular performance: implications for muscle testing and rehabilitation. Int J Sports Med 15: S11-18, 1994.

102.

 

Kannus P:Normality, variability and predictability of work, power and torque acceleration energy with respect to peak torque in isokinetic muscle testing. Int J Sports Med 13: 249-256, 1992.

103.

 

Keating JF, Waterworth P, Shaw-Dunn J, Crossan J: The relative strengths of the rotator cuff muscles. J Bone Joint Surg 75B: 137-140, 1993

104.

 

Kellis E, Baltzopoulos V: Isokinetic eccentric exercise. Sports Med 19: 202-223, 1995

105.

 

Kelly BT, Cooper LW, Kirkendall DT, Speer KP: Technical considerations for electromyographic research of the shoulder. Clin Orthop 335: 140-151, 1997

106.

 

Kelly BT, Kadrmas WR, Speer KP: The manual muscle examination for rotator cuff strength. An electromyographic investigation. Am J Sports Med 24: 581-588, 1996

107.

 

Kennedy K, Altchek DW, Glick IV: Concentric and eccentric isokinetic cuff ratios in skilled tennis players. Isokinet Exerc Sci 3: 155-159, 1993

108.

 

Kirschenbaum D, Coyle MP, Leddy JP, Katsaros P, Tan F, Cody RP: Shoulder strength with rotator cuff tears. Pre- and postoperative analysis. Clin Orthop 288: 174-178, 1993

109.

 

Komi PV, Buskirk ER: Effect of eccentric and concentric muscle conditioning on tension and electrical activity of human muscle. Ergonomics 15: 417-434, 1972

110.

 

Komi PV, Rusko H: Quantitative evaluation of mechanical and electrical changes during fatigue loading of eccentric and concentric work. Scand J Rehab Med 3: S21-26, 1974

111.

 

Komi PV, Viitasalo JT: Changes in motor unit activity and metabolism in human sceletal muscle during and after repeated eccentric and concentric contraction. Acta Physiol Scand 100: 246-254, 1977

112.

 

Kuhlman JR, Iannotti JP, Kelly MJ, Riegler FX, Gevaert ML, Ergin TM: Isokinetic and isometric measurement of strength of external rotation and abduction of the shoulder. J Bone J Surg 74A: 1320-1333, 1992

113.

 

Kuipers H: Exercise-induced muscle damage. Int J Sports Med 15: 132-135, 1994

114.

 

Kvitne RS, Jobe FW: The diagnosis and treatment of anterior instability in the throwing athlete. Clin Orthop 291: 107-123, 1993

115.

 

Leroux JJ, Codine P, Thomas E, Pocholle M, Maithe D, Blotman F: Isokinetic evaluation of rotational strength in normal shoulder and shoulder with impingement syndrome. Clin Orthop 304: 108-115, 1994

116.

 

Leroux JL, Hebert P, Mouilleron P, Thomas E, Bonnel F, Blotman F: Postoperative shoulder rotators strength in stages II and III impingement syndrome. Clin Orthop 320: 46-54, 1995

117.

 

Magnusson SP, Constantini NW, McHugh MP, Gleim GW: Strength profiles and performance in masters´ level swimmers. Am J Sports Med 23: 626-631, 1995

118.

 

Magnusson SP, Gleim GW, Nicholas JA: Subject variability of shoulder abduction strentgh testing. Am J Sports Med 18: 349-353, 1990

119.

 

Malanga GA, Jenp YN, Growney ES, An KN: EMG analysis of shoulder positioning in testing and strengthening the supraspinatus. Med Sci Sports Exerc 28: 661-664, 1996

120.

 

Marino M, Nicholas JA, Gleim GW, Rosenthhal P, Nicholas SJ: The efficiacy of manual assessment of muscle strength using a new device. Am J Sports Med 10: 360-364, 1982

121.

 

Mayer F, Bilow H, Horstmann T, Niess A, Dickhuth HH: Peak torque, EMG-activity and structural damage after eccentric exercise in paraplegic wheelchair drivers. Med Sci Sports Exerc 29: S21, 1997

122.

 

Mayer F, Gündel H, Horstmann T, Martini F, Heitkamp HC, Röcker K, Dickhuth HH: Structural damage after single stress of the shoulder musculature. Int J Sports Med 19: S58, 1998

123.

 

Mayer F, Horstmann T, Röcker K, Heitkamp HC, Dickhuth HH: Normal values of isokinetic maximum strength, the strength/velocity curve, and the angle at peak torque of all degrees of freedom in the shoulder. Int J Sports Med 15: S19-25, 1994.

124.

 

Mayer F, Kranenberg U, Horstmann T, Röcker K, Dickhuth HH: Reproducibility of isokinetic peak torque and angle at peak torque in the shoulder. Int J Sports Med 15: S26-31, 1994.

125.

 

McCann PD, Wootten ME, Kadaba MP, Bigliani LU: A kinematic and electromyographic study of shoulder rehabilitation exercises. Clin Orthop 288: 179-188, 1993

126.

 

McMaster WC, Long SC, Caiozzo VJ: Isokinetic torque imbalances in the rotator cuff of the elite water polo player. Am J Sports Med 19: 72-75, 1991

127.

 

McMaster WC, Long SC, Caiozzo VJ: Shoulder torque changes in the swimming athlete. Am J Sports Med 20: 323-327, 1992

128.

 

Mendler HM: Effect of stabilization on maximum isokinetic knee extensor force. Phys Ther 47: 375-379, 1967

129.

 

Mikesky AE, Edwards JE, Wigglesworth JK, Kunkel S: Eccentric and concentric strength of the shoulder and arm musculature in collegiate baseball pitchers. Am J Sports Med 23: 638-642, 1995

130.

 

Milner-Brown HS, Mellenthin M, Miller RG: Quantifying human muscle strength, endurance and fatigue. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 67: 530-534, 1986

131.

 

Mont MA, Cohen DB, Campbell KR, Gravare K, Mathur SK: Isokinetic concentric versus eccentric training of the shoulder rotators with functional evaluation of performance enhancement in elite tennis players. Am J Sports Med 22: 512-517, 1994

132.

 

Montgomery LC, Douglas LW, Deuster PA: Reliability of an isokinetic test of muscle strength and endurance. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 10: 315-322, 1989

133.

 

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134.

 

Morriss C, Bartlett R: Biomechanical factors critical for performance in the men`s javelin throw. Sports Med 21: 438-446, 1996

135.

 

Moseley JB, Jobe FW, Pink M, Perry J, Tibone J: EMG analysis of the scapular musles during a shoulder rehabilitation program. Am J Sports Med 20, 1992

136.

 

Motzkin NE, Cahalan TD, Morrey BF, An KN, Chao EY: Isometric and isokinetic endurance testing of the forearm complex. Am J Sports Med 19: 107-111, 1991

137.

 

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138.

 

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139.

 

Neer CS: Impingement lesions. Clin Orthop 173: 70-78, 1983

140.

 

Nevasier RJ: Painful conditions affecting the shoulder. Clin Orthop 173: 63-69, 1983

141.

 

Newham D: The consequences of eccentric contractions and their relationship to delayed onset muscle pain. Eur J Appl Physiol 57: 353-359, 1988

142.

 

Nicholas JJ, Robinson LR, Logan A, Robertson R: Isokinetic testing in young nonathletic able-bodied subjects. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 70: 210-213, 1989.

143.

 

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144.

 

Nicholson GG: Rehabilitation of common shoulder injuries. Clin Sports Med 8: 633-655, 1989

145.

 

Nicklin J, Karni Y, Wiles CM: Shoulder abduction fatiguability. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 50: 423-427, 1987

146.

 

Nosaka K, Clarkson PM: Effect of eccentric exercise on plasma enzyme activities previously elevated by eccentric exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol 69: 492-497, 1994

147.

 

Ohry A, Brooks ME, Steinbach TV, Rozin R: Shoulder complications as a cause of delay in rehabilitation of spinal cord injured patients. Paraplegia 16: 310-316, 1979

148.

 

Osternig LR: Isokinetic dynamometry: Implications for muscle testing and rehabilitation. Exerc Sports Sci Rev 14: 45-80, 1986

149.

 

Otis JC, Jiang CC, Wickiewicz TL, Peterson MG, Warren RF, Santner TJ: Changes in the moment arms of the rotator cuff and deltoid muscles with abduction and rotation. J Bone Joint Surg 76A: 667-676, 1994

150.

 

Otis JC, Warren RF, Backus SI, Santner TJ, Mabrey JD: Torque production in the shoulder of the normal young adult male. The interaction of function, dominance, joint angle, and angular velocity. Am J Sports Med 18: 119-123, 1990

151.

 

Pappas AM, Zawacki RM, McCarthy CF: Rehabilitation of the pitching shoulder. Am J Sports Med 13: 223-235, 1985

152.

 

Patton RW, Hinson MM, Arnold BR, Lessard B: Fatigue curves of isokinetic contractions. Arch Phys Med Reahbil 59: 507-509, 1978

153.

 

Pedegana LR, Elsner RC, Roberts D, Lang J, Farewell V: The relationship of upper extremity strength to throwing speed. Am J Sports Med 10: 352-354, 1982

154.

 

Perrin DH, Robertson RJ, Ray RL: Bilateral isokinetic peak torque, torque acceleration energy, power, and work relationship in athletes and non-athletes. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 9: 184-189, 1987

155.

 

Perrine DH: Reliability of isokinetic measures. Athl Train 21: 319-321, 1986

156.

 

Perrine JJ, Edgerton VR: Muscle force-velocity and power-velocity relationships under isokinetic loading. Med Sci Sports Exerc 10: 159-166, 1978

157.

 

Perry J: Anatomy and Biomechanics of the shoulder in throwing, swimming, gymnastics, and tennis. Clin Sports Med 2: 247-270, 1983

158.

 

Pink M, Jobe FW, Perry J, Browne A, Scovazzo ML, Kerrigan J: The painful shoulder during butterfly stroke. Clin Orthop 288: 60-72, 1993

159.

 

Poppen NK, Walker PS: Forces at glenohumeral joint in abduction. Clin Orthop 135:165-170, 1978

160.

 

Poppen NK, Walker PS: Normal and abnormal motion of the shoulder. J Bone Joint Surg 58A: 195-201, 1976

161.

 

Post M, Silver R, Singh M: Rotator Cuff Tear. Diagnosis and treatment. Clin Orthop 173: 78-91, 1983

162.

 

Puhl J, Case S, Fleck S, van Handel P: Physical and physiological characteristics of elite volleyball players. Res Q 53: 257-262, 1982

163.

 

Rabin SI, Post MP: A comparative study of clinical muscle testing and cybex evaluation after shoulder operations. Clin Orthop 258: 147-156, 1990

164.

 

Riddle Dl, Finucane SD, Rothstein JM: Intrasession and intersession reliability on hand-held dynamometer measurements taken on brain-damaged patients. Phys Ther 69: 182-194, 1989

165.

 

Rockwood CA, Burkhead WZ: Management of patients with massive rotator cuff defects by acromioplasty and rotator cuff debridement. Orthop Trans 12: 190-191, 1988

166.

 

Saha AK: Mechanism of shoulder movements and a plea for the recognition of „zero position“ of glenohumeral joint. Indian J Surg 12: 153-162, 1950

167.

 

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